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Embryo & Maternal Interaction

Development of Embryo and Maternal Interaction in Small Ruminants



Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART) has successfully moved sheep and goat embryo production forward and has made it possible to produce the dolly dish. Imprinting formatic nuclear material into the oocyst resulted in the clone sheep. However, the longevity and early aging are some of the facts which need further investigation. The naturally produced embryo and the invitro produced embryo differ in their development process. Whereas naturally produced embryos develop normally through various stages, the invitro embryonic development has not been reported beyond hypo blast stages. Communications between early embryo and its appendages are thought to be very important. For advanced embryonic development and implantation, this system of communication is called gif generation network. Blastocoels formation encompasses relations and interactions between gap generation, tight generation, sodium, water and other electrolytes. Similarly, communications between early embryo and uterine epithelium and the matter plays an essential role in the maintenance of pregnancy. The production of chemical messengers by the embryo, like the one produced by the small ruminant embryo called interferon-tau, blocks PGF2 alpho production from the uterus and helps in the pregnancy. There is a lot of information on early embryonic development, but very little information is available on foeto maternal interaction.

In this postgraduate project, investigations have been done on some of the morphological and bio-chemical characteristics involving foeto maternal interaction. The blood serum constitution of foetal fluids and maternal serum are also compared. The paper presents a broader review of early embryonic development in small ruminants along with foetal maternal relations.


The author of this paper is Dr. G. M. Wani. He has written and contributed more than 200 papers in research journals and conferences in the field of biotechnologies of small ruminants. To mention just one of them, his scholarly paper Multiple Management System can be found in the Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences, published by Elsevier Academic Press, UK. Dr. Wani has worked in international institutes of repute, including the Veterinary University of Hanover, Germany; and the Veterinary Research Institute in India. He has a number of national and international awards to his credit, and his biography is included in many leading biographies. At present, Dr. Wani is Director of Extension Education at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Srinagar, Kashmir, India.


Number of Words: 1,832
Number of Pages: approx. 13
Price: $50

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